Ratio used in carbon 14 dating
By 1830 Lyell's famous textbook, Principles of Geology, came out. Such was the age of the great creationist geologists!The principle of faunal succession in the geologic record was established by direct observation as early as 1799 by William Smith.
Any kind of object clearly restricted to a specific point in the geologic column would do just fine.
If green dice were found only in the middle Ordovician strata, they would make excellent "index fossils." Evolution should be seen as an explanation of the faunal succession, a succession which was worked out long before evolution dominated the scene.
By then, the relative ages (order) of the geologic column had already been worked out in some detail.
Radiometric dating would later confirm the relative ages of the strata and tie them to absolute dates.
Evolution, working in tandem with geologic ages, can explain why we have index fossils, but evolution is needed to make the index fossils useful for dating strata.
While we're on this subject, you might wish to know the odds of arranging the Precambrian era, the seven geologic periods of the Paleozoic (Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, Permian), the three periods of the Mesozoic (Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous), and the two periods of the Cenozoic (Paleogene, Neogene or Tertiary, Quaternary) in their proper order by pure chance.The depth of burial, itself, has little to do with our mystery.In some parts of the world the Cretaceous is found deeper than is the Cambrian in other parts of the world.Once the worth of index fossils had been established on the basis of stratification studies, they could logically be used to extend the correlation of rock formations to other continents.At this point in time they were simply a useful tool for correlating rock formations. With a half-life of only 5730 years, carbon-14 dating has nothing to do with dating the geological ages! Hovind is confusing the carbon-14 "clock" with other radiometric "clocks." The only thing in the geologic record which has anything to do with calibrating carbon-14 dating is the coal from the Carboniferous Period.